Selling New Designs
by Roy Linegar
sale of an aircraft design is perhaps the most delicate
and complicated of all modern merchandising operations.
Everything is "on paper", and there is
little to sell that is more tangible than a promising
concept, expressed in a design study. It is the design
study which forms the basis for the formal proposal
submitted to the prospective customer.
In introducing the Avro proposal to the RCAF, Avro's
Sales and Service Division became the primary link between the company and customer
It has maintained this role, from the outset to negotiate a proposal such as
the Arrow, for a government approval as a defence weapon, a company must be in
a position to satisfy the requirements, not of a single customer, but of many
Set Out Details
Avro's Sales and Contracts Administration departments
had an early hand in preparing and vetting the overall Arrow proposals and submitting
them to the RCAF, DDP, and other government offices. The proposals set out details
of the work to be performed, plus the time and cost involved.
To present these proposals, a series of informative
brochures was prepared by the Technical Writing section, which contained anticipated
performance and operational characteristics of the aircraft, supplemented by
numerous illustrations and detailed drawings produced by the Division's illustrating
Following acceptance of the Arrow proposal, the Contracts
Administration began the complex and lengthy task of negotiating a firm contract.
This was based on the scope of the work, the standard of workmanship required,
the materials to be used and the aircraft performance to be achieved.
To implement the contract requirements the Contracts
Administration department issued sales orders to all departments concerned, and
undertook responsibility for contractual negotiations with all subcontractors
concerned in the Arrow program.
After RCAF engineering approval of the proposal for
the Arrow was
| received, the detail
design got underway. Simultaneously,
the preparing of main tenance instructions was begun
by the Technical Writing section. Such technical
literature is vital to efficient aircraft operation
and maintenance. The staff of technical writers preparing
the text maintains close liaison with all other departments
within the company to ensure that published information
is accurate and comprehensive.
Working in close co-operation with the Writing section
is the Illustrating section which prepared a wide variety of art work required
froth for illustrating the maintenance instructions and for the various reports,
charts and film titling for motion pictures which made up the sales literature.
The Publications Production section processes all text
and illustrations for offset platemaking. It also arranges for printing and distribution
of all literature published by the Division. It also arranges for printing and
distribution of all literature published by the Division.
Analysis of the servicing requirements of the Arrrow's
systems and components has gone forward step by step with completion of design.
All publications are constantly being revised and brought up to date by the writing
section so that complete up-to-date descriptive and servicing instructions are
To familiarize RCAF technicians with the new
aircraft's costly and complex equipment, the company is designing training aids
to be used for the instruction of ground and air crews. The Serv ice Department,
acting in an advisory capacity on the design of these aids, will furnish instructors
and instructional manuals for such training courses in the near future.
Since the Arrow program involves all divisions of the
company plus a host of subcontractors, a practical assessment of overall progress
is made regularly on all significant aspects of the ARROW program.
These reports are prepared by Publications from facts
and figures assembl ed by the various divisions responsible. These are invariably
supplemented by documentary motion pictures which rec
(Continued on Page 12,
from Sales and Service are called upon to produce
drawings of everything from technical cutaways to
realistic paintings. Here, Illustrations Supervisor
Len Thornquist, right, approves efforts of Rex Simmons,
Centre, and Phil Brockwell, working on a large cutaway.
|Experimental Test Pilots
Jan Zurakowski, in cockpit, and 'Spud' Potocki, third
from left, aid analogue computing specialists in
analysing flight control responses in a special Arrow
simulator. Analogue Supervisor Stan Kwiatkowski,
left, and members of his staff watch for results.
Need Test Pilots'
At Early Design Stage
by Don Rogers
| In the development
cycle of a new aircraft, the contribution of the test
pilot does not reach a peak until the first flight
of the prototype. This does not mean, however, that
he merely stands by during the period of design and
manufacture waiting for the signal to start flying.
His personal attention to details of the aircraft begins
during the early design stages. It concerns such items as controls, hydraulics,
electrical and fuel systems, emergency provisions, cockpit layout, and extends
to a detailed study of expected control characteristics, aircraft response rates,
aerodynamic damping and stability throughout the complete range of airspeed and
This type of detailed study and the ability to understand
and discuss the various technical aspects with designers and engineers is particularly
important in the case of an aircraft such as the Arrow which is planned to meet
a highly advanced concept of performance capabilities.
One area in which co-operation of pilot and engineer
may be of significant mutual benefit is in the design of the flight simulator.
This device is an electronic brain, of the Analogue Computer variety, connected
to a mock-up of the cockpit and controls. Into this rig the engineer feeds his
very best estimates of aircraft flight characteristics and control
When the experienced test pilot "flies" the simulator,
he benefits by deriving some familiarity with what to expect of the
aircraft he will be flying and simultaneously, he can assist the
design staff by reporting any conditions of flight during which the
simulator does not behave in the way he would wish the actual aircraft
to fly. This presents an opportunity to make alterations or adjustments
in the controls before the pilot must take the aircraft into the
air for the first time.
Another area which receives great attention
by the test pilot is the arrangement of all controls, instruments and switches
in the cockpit. He works very closely with the designers and human factors engineers
in an attempt to arrive at the optimum lay-out with a minimum of compromise.
That this effort has been successful in the case
of the Arrow is confirmed by the many favourable comments volunteered by other
experienced military pilots who have had an opportunity to assess the mock-up.
One of the most encouraging statements was that made
on Page 10, Col. 4)
|This mockup of a Pratt
and Whitney J75 jet engine was used in the design
of the Arrow's engine bays in order to accommodate
it. Shown above cradled in its handling dolly, the
mockup is now used to aid in the development of field
service techniques for engine changes.