To All Arrow
Fred T. Smye,
And General Manager,
Addresses Big Gathering
The supersonic era of powered
flight in Canada was ushered in today at
Malton, with the first public viewing of
the supersonic Avro Arrow.
Termed by President Fred T. Smye, "one of the
most advanced combat aircraft in the world", the big delta winged aircraft
rolled out of Bay I on a signal from the Honourable George R. Pearkes, V.C.,
Minister of National Defence, in the presence of a representative gathering of
Military,Government, and Industry, together with as many Avroites as could possibly
be spared from their work for the period of the ceremony.
In his address, Mr. Smye said: "The Avro
Arrow is a twin engine, long range, day and night supersonic interceptor. It
has a crew of two. It is a big, versatile aircraft. The loaded weight of the
Arrow is in the order of 30 tons.
"Primary armament of the aircraft is
to be air-to-air guided missiles, installed in a detachable armament bay in the
fuselage. The versatility provided by this armament bay will enable the aircraft
to perform other roles.
"The aircraft will be equipped with one
of the most advanced integrated electronics systems, which will combine the navigation
and operation of the aircraft with its fire control system.
"The Arrow is designed to operate from
"I believe it can be said that the Arrow
is one of the most advanced combat aircraft in the world. It has been designed
to meet the particular requirements of the RCAF for the defence of Canada.
"I wish to emphasize that this aircraft
is by no means a hand-made prototype. On the contrary, it has been produced from
very complete production tooling. This policy has been followed so that when
the aircraft development has been completed, we will be able to move into the
production phase without undue delay. Furthermore, an aircraft of the complexity
and preciseness of the Arrow requires extensive tooling to ensure accuracy of
"This ceremony today is one of great
significance to all of us at Avro and, we would like to think, to the Canadian
aviation industry. The Arrow represents years of extremely hard work by our engineers,
technicians, and craftsmen.
"It is the result of constant probing
into new and unknown technical areas to meet the ever advancing requirements.
"We feel that this airplane represents
a substantial technical achievement - that it demonstrates the capability of
Canadian technology, and represents a substantial Canadian contribution to the
"I cannot help but say how proud I am
of the employees of Avro who have created what I think will become known as a
on Page 12, Col. 1)
Models were used in early development stages
of the Arrow, to gather aerodynamic data. A model
is seen here being readied on its launching rig
with a Nike rocket booster in firing position.
In Record Four Years
first supersonic jet aircraft rolled from the
end of Avro Aircraft's assembly line today-a
little more than four years after the CF-105
proposal was first submitted to the Royal Canadian
In addition to rolling out in much better than average
time, this Canadian designed, twin-engine, delta-wing interceptor was completely
fabricated and assembled with production tooling and methods-the first time that
such a prototype has appeared in the history of Canadian aviation.
The unveiling ceremonies today culminate what began
some six years ago as the germ of an idea in the minds of a small group of creative
engineers headed by J. C. Floyd, now Vice-President Engineering. Although the
supersonic delta concept was not new, these people felt it was possible for Canada,
through the engineer and production facilities of Avro Aircraft, to design and
produce in quantity, an advanced aircraft type to meet the threat of future developments
of potential enemy bombers.
The initial step in the undertaking which produced
the first Arrow took place in September 1951. At that time the company submitted
to the RCAF a brochure containing three proposals for an advanced supersonic
One of these
was a delta wing design for an all-weather
interceptor, powered by two Sapphire 4 engines,
and manned by a crew of two. As a result
of these proposals, an operational requirement
for an "All-Weather Interceptor" was
received from the RCAF the following March.
Basically, this requirement was for an internally-armed
aircraft capable of intercepting and destroying
a supersonic, enemy bomber at very high altitudes.
Delta Planform Chosen
The delta planform version was chosen for further
development. This was because it offered the best compromise between a thin wing
section-required for supersonic fligbt and sufficient physical depth in the wing
root section to house the undercarriage plus the large amount of fuel that was
required for such a mission. The engineers calculated that the delta also gave
an efficient and relatively light structure with good general control at transonic
Both single and twin engine aircraft were considered
in the design studies that followed. Company engineers felt that the twin engine
version would have a marked increase in performance because it had twice the
thrust, but did not need double the fuselage frontal area to accommodate the
engines. Two engines would also give increased reliability.
|Economic considerations led to
the inclusion of "flexibility of tactical
use" in the design to give it a long and
useful life through continued development. In
doing this it was necessary to ensure that this
flexibility did not jeopardize the calculated
performance of the aircraft, or its ability to
meet the RCAF's specification requirements.
In June 1952 Avro issued brochures to the RCAF on "Designs
to Interceptor Requirements" under the designation of C104/1 and C104/2.
Both proposals were of delta planform, the C104/1 with single engine, and the
larger, heavier, C104/2 with twin engines. Each aircraft carried a crew of two,
with provision for missiles and rockets.
Engines under consideration for both proposals were
the Curtiss-Wright J67, the Bristol Olympus 3, and the Avro TR 9. Electronic
fire control systems were included in the designs.
National Aeronautical Establishment analysis of the
C104/1 and C104/2 proposals
|Early Wind Tunnel
models produced data which led to refinements
in the external shape.