Fred T. Smye,
And General Manager,
Addresses Big Gathering
The supersonic era of powered
flight in Canada was ushered in today at
Malton, with the first public viewing of
the supersonic Avro Arrow.
Termed by President Fred T. Smye, "one of the
most advanced combat aircraft in the world", the big delta winged aircraft
rolled out of Bay I on a signal from the Honourable George R. Pearkes, V.C.,
Minister of National Defence, in the presence of a representative gathering of
Military,Government, and Industry, together with as many Avroites as could possibly
be spared from their work for the period of the ceremony.
In his address, Mr. Smye said: "The Avro
Arrow is a twin engine, long range, day and night supersonic interceptor. It
has a crew of two. It is a big, versatile aircraft. The loaded weight of the
Arrow is in the order of 30 tons.
"Primary armament of the aircraft is
to be air-to-air guided missiles, installed in a detachable armament bay in the
fuselage. The versatility provided by this armament bay will enable the aircraft
to perform other roles.
"The aircraft will be equipped with one
of the most advanced integrated electronics systems, which will combine the navigation
and operation of the aircraft with its fire control system.
"The Arrow is designed to operate from
"I believe it can be said that the Arrow
is one of the most advanced combat aircraft in the world. It has been designed
to meet the particular requirements of the RCAF for the defence of Canada.
"I wish to emphasize that this aircraft
is by no means a hand-made prototype. On the contrary, it has been produced from
very complete production tooling. This policy has been followed so that when
the aircraft development has been completed, we will be able to move into the
production phase without undue delay. Furthermore, an aircraft of the complexity
and preciseness of the Arrow requires extensive tooling to ensure accuracy of
"This ceremony today is one of great
significance to all of us at Avro and, we would like to think, to the Canadian
aviation industry. The Arrow represents years of extremely hard work by our engineers,
technicians, and craftsmen.
"It is the result of constant probing
into new and unknown technical areas to meet the ever advancing requirements.
"We feel that this airplane represents
a substantial technical achievement - that it demonstrates the capability of
Canadian technology, and represents a substantial Canadian contribution to the
"I cannot help but say how proud I am
of the employees of Avro who have created what I think will become known as a
(Continued on Page 12, Col. 1)
Models were used in early development stages
of the Arrow, to gather aerodynamic data. A model
is seen here being readied on its launching rig
with a Nike rocket booster in firing position.
In Record Four Years
first supersonic jet aircraft rolled from the
end of Avro Aircraft's assembly line today-a
little more than four years after the CF-105
proposal was first submitted to the Royal Canadian
In addition to rolling out in much better than average
time, this Canadian designed, twin-engine, delta-wing interceptor was completely
fabricated and assembled with production tooling and methods-the first time that
such a prototype has appeared in the history of Canadian aviation.
The unveiling ceremonies today culminate what began
some six years ago as the germ of an idea in the minds of a small group of creative
engineers headed by J. C. Floyd, now Vice-President Engineering. Although the
supersonic delta concept was not new, these people felt it was possible for Canada,
through the engineer and production facilities of Avro Aircraft, to design and
produce in quantity, an advanced aircraft type to meet the threat of future developments
of potential enemy bombers.
All-Weather Interceptor The initial step in the undertaking which produced
the first Arrow took place in September 1951. At that time the company submitted
to the RCAF a brochure containing three proposals for an advanced supersonic
One of these
was a delta wing design for an all-weather
interceptor, powered by two Sapphire 4 engines,
and manned by a crew of two. As a result
of these proposals, an operational requirement
for an "All-Weather Interceptor" was
received from the RCAF the following March.
Basically, this requirement was for an internally-armed
aircraft capable of intercepting and destroying
a supersonic, enemy bomber at very high altitudes.
Delta Planform Chosen The delta planform version was chosen for further
development. This was because it offered the best compromise between a thin wing
section-required for supersonic fligbt and sufficient physical depth in the wing
root section to house the undercarriage plus the large amount of fuel that was
required for such a mission. The engineers calculated that the delta also gave
an efficient and relatively light structure with good general control at transonic
Both single and twin engine aircraft were considered
in the design studies that followed. Company engineers felt that the twin engine
version would have a marked increase in performance because it had twice the
thrust, but did not need double the fuselage frontal area to accommodate the
engines. Two engines would also give increased reliability.
Economic considerations led to
the inclusion of "flexibility of tactical
use" in the design to give it a long and
useful life through continued development. In
doing this it was necessary to ensure that this
flexibility did not jeopardize the calculated
performance of the aircraft, or its ability to
meet the RCAF's specification requirements.
In June 1952 Avro issued brochures to the RCAF on "Designs
to Interceptor Requirements" under the designation of C104/1 and C104/2.
Both proposals were of delta planform, the C104/1 with single engine, and the
larger, heavier, C104/2 with twin engines. Each aircraft carried a crew of two,
with provision for missiles and rockets.
Engines under consideration for both proposals were
the Curtiss-Wright J67, the Bristol Olympus 3, and the Avro TR 9. Electronic
fire control systems were included in the designs.
National Aeronautical Establishment analysis of the
C104/1 and C104/2 proposals
Early Wind Tunnel
models produced data which led to refinements
in the external shape.
Here are the
four men who co-ordinated the efforts of all phases
of Engineering which went into creating the Arrow.
From left: R. N. Lindley, Chief Engineer; J. C. Floyd,
Vice-President Engineering; Guest Hake, Arrow Project
Designer; and Jim Chamberlin, Chief of Technical
was received in October of that year.
NAE found the C104/2 design had many desirable features
but considered the proposed aircraft too heavy. It
recommended that further studies be made on this configuration.
In addition, changes were made at this time to the
RCAF requirements for the all-weather fighter concept.
These primarily called for an increase in the aircraft's
"Go-Ahead" . . . The C104 proposal was, as a result, redesigned,
and the new configuration was established as the
C105. To meet the aerodynamic requirements the
new proposal maintained the delta planform and
was twin-engined, but its weight was reduced while
the overall size was kept as small as possible.
Avro submitted the C105 proposal to the RCAF in
In less than one month the "Go-Ahead" was
received from the government authorizing a design study of the C105 to meet the
First step in the design study was to adapt the new
concept to Rolls Royce RB106 engines which were then in an advanced stage of
development. From that point things progressed rapidly and the first tests of
the wind tunnel development program were run in September 1953, only two months
after the "gun was fired".
To date, Arrow wind tunnel models have been tested from
low speed to twice the speed of sound. Facilities used included
NAE (Ottawa) for low and high speed
testing, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories (Buffalo)
for transonic tests, NACA (Langley Field, Virginia)
for supersonic tests, and NACA Lewis Laboratory (Cleveland)
for air intake tests. Seventeen models, ranging from
1/80th to 1/6th scale were used at one or the other
of these facilities, to obtain necessary structural
and aerodynamic data.
Wind tunnel limitations caused Avro engineers to explore
further techniques for obtaining important aerodynamic data. These consisted
mainly of a lengthy program of firing large scale free-flight models, with rocket-propelled
boosters to supersonic speeds to simulating flight of the full scale aircraft
at altitude. The models were instrumented to measure performance and stability
and to transmit the information back to a ground station.
Aerodynamics Tests Eleven free-flight models were fired between
December, 1954 and January, 1957-nine at the CARDE range at Point Petre, Ontario,
and two at the NACA range in Virginia. All rocket launchings and booster separations
were successful and the firing program was completed satisfactorily. In nearly
every test, complete performance records were obtained.
During 1954, when preliminary design was completed,
the RCAF adopted the CF-105 designation for the aircraft. Initial proposals,
design studies and tests which led to establishing the basic configuration of
the CF-105, resulted mainly
fuel tanks are a feature of the Arrow. Extensive
checking of the entire fuel system is continually
going on in this specially-built test facility. Prevention
of leakage is imperative.
Structure of a free-flight
model is tested at key points, with strain gauges
to measure deflection. When ready for flight, models
were heavily instrumented to transmit data to engineers.
Mock-up of the cockpit
was mounted on a truck at actual height and taxiing
attitude of the Arrow in order to check pilot visibility
under actual daylight and night operating conditions.
from the efforts of the Preliminary Design
Office, under the direction of Jim Chamberlin, who
is now Chief of Technical Design.
Powerplant Changes Later in 1954, powerplant problems arose which
required major changes in the proposed program. The Rolls Royce RB 106 engines
which were incorporated in the design, would not be available in time for the
CF-105, and were replaced by two Curtiss-Wright J67 engines. Then, in early 1955,
the U.S. Air Force disclosed that the J67 also would be too late to meet the
Avro schedule. At this point, the program now in effect was laid on-the installation
of Pratt & Whitney J75s as an interim measure, and Orenda PS13s (Iroquois)
when they become available. Although the Iroquois development was well advanced,
and its specifications more than met Avro's requirements, the combination of
an untried engine and an untried airframe was considered not practical on an
aircraft development flight test program.
A great deal of theoretical work on the application
of the "Area Rule" was carried out on the CF-105 project. This is essentially
a method of refining the fuselage shape to give the so-called "Coke-Bottle" effect
for the purpose of reducing supersonic drag of the aircraft.
Both the RAF and USAF were kept constantly informed
of the progress of the Canadian project, and contributed significant encouragement
by their concurrence in the soundness of the concept.
From the time the basic configuration was established,
to the end of 1956, up to 460 engineers, technicians and drafts men worked on
the design and development of the CF-105 structure and systems. Under the general
direction and guidance of Bob Lindley, Chief Engineer, and the co-ordinating
efforts of Guest Hake, Project Designer, a multitude of problems in each of the
fields of engineering were resolved.
An engineering mock-up of the complete aircraft was
built to provide a three dimensional check on installation clearances and general
accessibility. Construction was mainly of wood with some metal formers. At first,
a rough mock-up of the J67 was installed to check clearances around the engines.
However, the later decision to install J75s required numerous changes to the
engine bay structure. RCAF evaluation of the mock-up took place in February last
year, and included assessment of a metal mock-up of the armament pack under consideration
at that time.
Pilot Visibility To demonstrate pilot visibility while taxiing
and cockpit lighting techniques, a special mock-up of the front cockpit was mounted
on a truck to simulate the actual height and attitude of the cockpit during ground
manoeuvering. This mock-up was later modified to include the radar nose and the
trials were repeated.
Early in 1956 work got under way to change the engine
bay section of the mock-up to accommodate the Iroquois engine and to iron out
primary installation problems. Associated ground handling equipment was also
built at that time.
Later in the year, conversion of the remainder of the
engineering mock-up from CF-105 Mk 1 to CF-105 Mk 2 configuration began. Timing
of the rebuild was based on the need to obtain RCAF evaluation results in time
to incorporate any necessary changes in the Mk 2 engineering release. A number
(Continued on Page 10, Col.1)
Avro's big electronicaIly-controlled
skin mill was installed to machine the integrally
stiffened wing skin panels from solid billets of
specially-alloyed rolled plate material. Cutter travels
Largest rubber forming
press in North America was installed for Arrow production.
Able to form parts easily from heavier materials
than previousneeds, the pressure capacity is 15,000
Heat Treat furnace was needed to accommodate large
pieces of material. It is mounted on legs directly
above a 20-foot long quench bath into which material
Extensive use of metal
bonding in the Arrow resulted in Avro acquiring this
huge Autoclave pressure chamber which uses heat and
increased pressure to give required adhesive strength.
All Arrow Tooling
In order to
produce economically the advanced aircraft which
rolled from the assembly line today, a complete departure
from conventional tooling and methods used in previous
programs became essential in some phases of manufacturing.
Primary basis for all these departures in both tooling
and methods was the necessity to attain an extremely
high degree of accuracy in all fabrication operations
in order to ensure successful supersonic performance
of the completed Arrow. The new departures also provided
for interchangeability of all components and parts
from the first airplane.
Some idea of the scope of the task facing the tooling
and methods people, and the increased complexity of the Arrow compared to the
familiar CF-100 may be seen in the fact that there is nearly three times as many
manufactured parts in the Arrow.
These changes began with the development of the Glass
Cloth Process in which Engineering designs are made directly onto glass cloth
to integrate tooling and part manufacturing techniques in the Production stages.
The use of glass cloth was decided upon since it is a stable media and may be
contact printed directly on the tool material, or paper prints made as required.
Its use precluded the need for re-layout at the detail design and tool build
Drawn Full Scale As soon as the envelope of the aircraft was
defined, full scale layouts of these master lines were drawn on glass cloth:
These master lines were reproduced on to glass cloth for the purpose of filling
in the actual structural details in the area concerned. This is called the assembly
glass cloth. In addition to the master lines and the assembly glass cloth, dimensional
geometry drawings for interchangeability hard points were also supplied by Engineering.
In order to provide a basic source of control for the
accurate manufacture of details that are in contact with the air frame envelope,
master models were built.
To construct the master model of a component, the master
lines glass cloths were contact printed on to light alloy sheets cut to profile,
and mounted on a suitable frame. After splining in to ensure accuracy of profile,
the spaces between the templates were plastered in to present the finished model.
This model is now the tooling master which establishes the shape of the component
and the shape and size of the various skin panels.
All detail parts adjacent to the
outside contour of the structure, and therefore
control the aircraft shape, must have their tooling
related directly to this model.
Through this process the Production Engineering Department
derived a direct contact relationship between the Engineering information and
the tools and parts.
To ensure accuracy and to eliminate hand finishing,
in the forming of metal parts from heavier materials, a great deal more pressure
was required far rubber forming technique. This resulted in the procurement of
the 15,000 tons Siempel Kamp Rubber Forming Press, the largest of its kind in
North America. The installation of this huge hydraulic Press started in March,
1955 and operations commenced to meet Arrow production requirements in months
later. Operation of the press is controlled electronically.
Early in the design stage of the Arrow it was determined
that integrally-stiffened skins and completely-machined structural members were
necessary to meet design requirements which specified one-piece wing panels for
integral fuel storage tanks. Because of this specialized equipment such as the
electronically-controlled Skin Mill was procured to machine these parts from
solid billets of specially-alloyed rolled plate material. The stationary working
surface of this complex machine is 28 feet long and the whole thing weighs 100
Raw material is held in place by vacuum pressure.
The cutter head moves over the material remotely guided by a tracer which follows
a template and mills finished skins have integral siffeners.
Together with the large Skin mill other smaller mills
were required, including special variable angle contour cutting mills. These
are used to machine spars and other structural members from solid pieces of material.
A special saw was designed and built by Avro in order to meet cutting capacity
for materials up to three inches thick and 20 feet long. In addition special
ultra sonic test equipment was needed to properly inspect large pieces of material
to locate any imperfections before machining operations started.
A new hot air heat treat furnace was installed which
provided adequate space
(Continued on page 12, Col. 3)
in the Arrow tooling program were Harvey R. Smith,
Vice-President Manufacturing, left, and Harold
Young, Production Engineering Manager, seen viewing
progress of the new aircraft.
Fuselage Centre Section
- the key section - for Arrow number one is seen being
lowered on to its marry-up handling trolley for transfer
to the main assembly jig for inner wing installation.
Completing the delta planform, the starboard
outer wing section is carefully married-up to the inner
wing which houses a landing gear unit equipped with two
wheels, tandem mounted
FIRST PRODUCTION ARROW
LOW MANHOUR RECORD
by Fred Lawrence
UNVEILING the Avro Arrow at today's ceremony
culminates many months of intensive effort on the part
of all departments in the company's manufacturing division.
In conjunction with the Engineering Division, they
have transcribed a calculated theory into a machine
which Allied Air Power experts have publicly recognized
as an extremely advanced type of airplane.
With full realization of the important role that this
airplane will be required to perform, the manufacturing policy from the start
has been predicated on producing the best possible product for the purpose intended,
consistent with efficient tooling and fabricating methods. The impact of the
program on the facilities
of the Manufacturing Division has been unique in Canada,
from both the point of view of physical plant requirements,
and the development of new, and in some cases previously
untried, production methods and machines.
Some highlights of this impact are related here in an
attempt to show how a highly skilled labour force, following practical and efficient
methods, has successfully produced Canada's first supersonic jet interceptor
which was released today from the production stage.
With the release of preliminary Engineering information
on the Arrow, the Industrial Engineering Department swung into action preparing
Manufacturing's master schedule. This key undertaking provided the exact dates
on which each phase of the Arrow manufacturing program would be completed, thus
providing an uninterrupted flow of parts and assemblies into the finished aircraft.
Preparation of such a complex schedule demanded a very precise analysis of manpower,
machine and facility capacities-particularly when no comparative records of a
similar production performance at Avro existed at this stage.
From Paper to Hardware From the completed master schedule, detailed
programs for machine and sheet metal parts were prepared, followed in turn by
sub-assembly and major assembly schedules. Again from the master schedule, came
man hour requirements,
which when transcribed into numbers
of personnel, permitted the smooth, pre-planned release
of manpower from the CF-100 program to the expanding
Arrow production line in accordance with a company
policy of maintaining a continuous level of employment
during the changeover.
Evidence of the successful pre-planning of the Arrow
program, is reflected today in the completed aircraft which was fabricated and
assembled in less than two and one half years from the date of the first design
release. In addition, the first: Arrow's man-hours-per-pound ratio is approximately
80% of projects of similar size and complexity throughout the aviation industry
in North America.
Industrial Engineering was responsible also for instigating
cost control procedures to ensure that all phases of the program were completed
in line with allocated funds.
Where shortages of tooling or production facilities
made it necessary to sub-contract the building of
parts, the same economic control was exercised on
stages, a time study analysis was maintained over
each operation so that established records of performance
and capacity are now available for future production.
To Plant Engineering fell the task of providing additional
floor space requirements, as well as the installation and maintenance of the
new equipment required.
Over 176,000 sq. ft. of additional floor space was provided
for the Arrow program, including space for the new 15,000- ton rubber forming
press; the Canefco heat treat furnace, and test facilities for the Engineering
Division. In addition, much of the existing floor area required special preparation
to accommodate a variety of new equipment. As a matter of fact, variety sections
of the plant were shifted completely to allow best space utilization of the new
equipment. The former Process Room in Bay 2 for instance
(Continued on page 11, Col. 1)
models of all skinned sections of the Arrow-Basic
forming tools for contour accuracy.
Harry Beffort, left, special
co-ordinator, Arrow assembly operations, discusses
Arrow's progress with Duke Riggs, Production Shop
stages of final assembly-skin is rivetted on centre
section; inner wings are installed.
AVRO NEWS 5
AVRO NEWS 7&8
John Wilson of sub-assembly, is seen
above fabricating a stainless steel heat exchanger
Quality Control Gains
New Inspection Skills
Quality Control inspectors okay
each step of the complex Arrow assembly. Here, final adjustments
are made to the starboard wingtip by Wally Grandey, left,
and Bill Osborn of assembly.
Joe King project such as the Arrow, can owe
much of its successful completion to first rate team
work and individual enthusiasm of all people concerned
with it. These qualities were fully exploited by each
man in Quality Control and Inspection, regardless of
his position in the scheme of things.
Quality Control joined in right from the start of the
Arrow manufacturing program and there is very little of the preparatory work
that they were not concerned with. Back in October of 1954 a group under Norman
Turrall became responsible for checking all Arrow drawings before their release
to the Shops. His instructions read: "It will be the responsibility of Quality
Control to ensure that a part made to the limits of the production drawing or
loft will in no way depart from the requirements of the Engineering and Quality
Control Departments, the requirements of specifications in force, and the requirements
of the R.C.A.F."
By June of 1957, a total of some 38,000 drawn or
lofted parts had been checked and passed through the section, plus some 14,000
parts which had been reworked or redesigned. Competent checking of drawings resulted
in a smoother flow of work through the shops with an accompanying reduced number
of hold-ups and queries.
One result of this group's work it that
a complete breakdown of inspection stages has been
available to men on the floor in time for each component,
installation, or marry-up sequence. A very important
phase of Quality Control operations concerns the Arrow's
interchangeability program. Tool designs are routinely
checked off for correctness of interchangeability features.
When a "first off" part is rejected in the
Machine Shop an investigation of the tooling is made
to off set the possibility of unnecessary repetition
of set ups and tool re-works.
Interchangeability With interchangeability designed into the Arrow
Quality Control has played ap important part in its successful application.
Maurice Cobb, Chairman of the Company Interchangeability
Committee, reported in October of 1954 that a start had been made on the Interchangeability
Report. That first report of a few pages is today a volume of more than two hundred
pages today. To Quality Tool Inspection and others this report is "the bible" since
it details fully the tool features to be inspected so that acceptable interchangeable
parts and components can be produced by the manufacturing division.
Besides compiling the Interchangeability Report,
Maurice Cobb is responsible for devising, setting-up
and guiding the Quality Control functions so far
mentioned. He also superintends Quality Tool Inspection.
Consider the significance of the Arrow wing sections
going together in the marry-up jig and later in the wing final assembly jig,
and again later when the fuselage components and the complete wing went together.
These marry-ups indicated a terrifically high degree of jig and jig-reference
accuracy. It speaks well of Quality Tool Inspection, that so few snags showed
up and that components went to-gether with the ease they did.
This group under John Trollope passed off the first
Arrow jig reference in February, 1955, and the first assembly jig 12 days later.
Since then some 235 tools have been passed and 331 jig references, and these
include the largest assembly jigs now in the plant. The main concern of Quality
Tool Inspection is interchangeability tooling. However, in June of last year
they took over the proving of sheet metal press form and stretch forming tools
and since then have cleared through some 10,000 tools.
Quality Tool Inspection also look after tools which
produce classified "complex" machined parts
and a variety of other tools which by arrangement
with the RCAF can be used as checking media to ensure
correctness of the part produced.
Inspection Innovations Using innovations on inspection, such as accepting
profile machined ribs and spars off the machine set-up, and machined castings
for canopies and windscreens off the production tooling, has playing a big part
in speeding production to the point it is today. At the same time it has meant
headaches for many.
Take, for instance, Gordon (Andy) Anderson in Receiving
Inspection, who has found his section loaded with many parts which were larger
than anything handled before. In many cases Andy's men have had problems in discovering
what to inspect the parts with. For example, no surface table of sufficient accuracy
was available, so it was necessary to have a 30-foot table re-surfaced to an
accuracy of plus and minus .0008 in. A custom made universal angle computor had
to be obtained because existing and available equipment was not large enough
for Avro's purpose.
Pioneering . .
. Evidently the cockpit canopy castings have
presented the biggest difficulties, these involved many hours of hand lay-out
both before machining and after.
These castings are made from a magnesium alloy not previously
used on this continent and this caused Receiving Inspection to get involved pretty
deeply in the pioneering work.
Dave Couperthwaite and his men in Machine Shop Inspection
had to contend with similar problems, but primarily with machined skins and profiled
structural parts such as ribs, spars and formers.
Machined skins produced by the big Kearney and Trecker
receive some twelve or more separate inspection operations,
(Continued on Page 11, Col. 4)
Sam Gray is shown at work on an inspection
panel on the port outer wing. Detail of Arrow's bogey
landing gear can be seen plainly above.
Assembly progress is continually
checked against drawings. Here in its jig is the
front fuselage section showing both cockpits and
engine air intakes.
Selling New Designs
by Roy Linegar
sale of an aircraft design is perhaps the most delicate
and complicated of all modern merchandising operations.
Everything is "on paper", and there is
little to sell that is more tangible than a promising
concept, expressed in a design study. It is the design
study which forms the basis for the formal proposal
submitted to the prospective customer.
In introducing the Avro proposal to the RCAF, Avro's
Sales and Service Division became the primary link between the company and customer
It has maintained this role, from the outset to negotiate a proposal such as
the Arrow, for a government approval as a defence weapon, a company must be in
a position to satisfy the requirements, not of a single customer, but of many
Set Out Details
Avro's Sales and Contracts Administration departments
had an early hand in preparing and vetting the overall Arrow proposals and submitting
them to the RCAF, DDP, and other government offices. The proposals set out details
of the work to be performed, plus the time and cost involved.
To present these proposals, a series of informative
brochures was prepared by the Technical Writing section, which contained anticipated
performance and operational characteristics of the aircraft, supplemented by
numerous illustrations and detailed drawings produced by the Division's illustrating
Following acceptance of the Arrow proposal, the Contracts
Administration began the complex and lengthy task of negotiating a firm contract.
This was based on the scope of the work, the standard of workmanship required,
the materials to be used and the aircraft performance to be achieved.
To implement the contract requirements the Contracts
Administration department issued sales orders to all departments concerned, and
undertook responsibility for contractual negotiations with all subcontractors
concerned in the Arrow program.
After RCAF engineering approval of the proposal for
the Arrow was
received, the detail
design got underway. Simultaneously,
the preparing of main tenance instructions was begun
by the Technical Writing section. Such technical
literature is vital to efficient aircraft operation
and maintenance. The staff of technical writers preparing
the text maintains close liaison with all other departments
within the company to ensure that published information
is accurate and comprehensive.
Working in close co-operation with the Writing section
is the Illustrating section which prepared a wide variety of art work required
froth for illustrating the maintenance instructions and for the various reports,
charts and film titling for motion pictures which made up the sales literature.
The Publications Production section processes all text
and illustrations for offset platemaking. It also arranges for printing and distribution
of all literature published by the Division. It also arranges for printing and
distribution of all literature published by the Division.
Analysis of the servicing requirements of the Arrrow's
systems and components has gone forward step by step with completion of design.
All publications are constantly being revised and brought up to date by the writing
section so that complete up-to-date descriptive and servicing instructions are
Training Aids To familiarize RCAF technicians with the new
aircraft's costly and complex equipment, the company is designing training aids
to be used for the instruction of ground and air crews. The Serv ice Department,
acting in an advisory capacity on the design of these aids, will furnish instructors
and instructional manuals for such training courses in the near future.
Since the Arrow program involves all divisions of the
company plus a host of subcontractors, a practical assessment of overall progress
is made regularly on all significant aspects of the ARROW program.
These reports are prepared by Publications from facts
and figures assembl ed by the various divisions responsible. These are invariably
supplemented by documentary motion pictures which rec
(Continued on Page 12, Col. 4)
from Sales and Service are called upon to produce
drawings of everything from technical cutaways to
realistic paintings. Here, Illustrations Supervisor
Len Thornquist, right, approves efforts of Rex Simmons,
Centre, and Phil Brockwell, working on a large cutaway.
Experimental Test Pilots
Jan Zurakowski, in cockpit, and 'Spud' Potocki, third
from left, aid analogue computing specialists in
analysing flight control responses in a special Arrow
simulator. Analogue Supervisor Stan Kwiatkowski,
left, and members of his staff watch for results.
Need Test Pilots'
At Early Design Stage
by Don Rogers
In the development
cycle of a new aircraft, the contribution of the test
pilot does not reach a peak until the first flight
of the prototype. This does not mean, however, that
he merely stands by during the period of design and
manufacture waiting for the signal to start flying.
His personal attention to details of the aircraft begins
during the early design stages. It concerns such items as controls, hydraulics,
electrical and fuel systems, emergency provisions, cockpit layout, and extends
to a detailed study of expected control characteristics, aircraft response rates,
aerodynamic damping and stability throughout the complete range of airspeed and
This type of detailed study and the ability to understand
and discuss the various technical aspects with designers and engineers is particularly
important in the case of an aircraft such as the Arrow which is planned to meet
a highly advanced concept of performance capabilities.
One area in which co-operation of pilot and engineer
may be of significant mutual benefit is in the design of the flight simulator.
This device is an electronic brain, of the Analogue Computer variety, connected
to a mock-up of the cockpit and controls. Into this rig the engineer feeds his
very best estimates of aircraft flight characteristics and control
When the experienced test pilot "flies" the simulator,
he benefits by deriving some familiarity with what to expect of the
aircraft he will be flying and simultaneously, he can assist the
design staff by reporting any conditions of flight during which the
simulator does not behave in the way he would wish the actual aircraft
to fly. This presents an opportunity to make alterations or adjustments
in the controls before the pilot must take the aircraft into the
air for the first time.
Cockpit Layout Another area which receives great attention
by the test pilot is the arrangement of all controls, instruments and switches
in the cockpit. He works very closely with the designers and human factors engineers
in an attempt to arrive at the optimum lay-out with a minimum of compromise.
That this effort has been successful in the case
of the Arrow is confirmed by the many favourable comments volunteered by other
experienced military pilots who have had an opportunity to assess the mock-up.
One of the most encouraging statements was that made
(Continued on Page 10, Col. 4)
This mockup of a Pratt
and Whitney J75 jet engine was used in the design
of the Arrow's engine bays in order to accommodate
it. Shown above cradled in its handling dolly, the
mockup is now used to aid in the development of field
service techniques for engine changes.
Avro's Computer Capacity
was greatly increased with the addition, this year,
of the IBM 704 electronic data processing machine
shown above. Latest and most powerful digital computer
available to industry, Avro's 704 is the only one
outside the U.S.
From Concept To Completion
In Record Four Years
from Page 3, Col. 4)
ground support equipment mock-ups were also built
for design appraisal. The CF-105 was officially
designated the Avro Arrow in early 1957, and the
two versions of the aircraft were designated Arrow
1 and Arrow 2.
Aerodynamically, the Arrow was entertaining a new realm
of science. Performance, stability and control problems were difficult to evaluate,
and data had to be obtained to establish air loads on the wing, fin, canopy and
control surfaces. In this respect, wind tunnel results proved and supplemented
theories in over- coming some of these problems. Im- provements in longitudinal
stability, buffet characteristics, subsonic drag and directional stability for
example were a direct result of wind tunnel testing.
Computer Capacity Analog computing equipment was installed to
accelerate the solution of dynamic and stress problems. The company also obtained
a new electronic digital computer of great speed and capacity to accommodate
its accelerated research and development program in supersonic aircraft. This
was the IBM 704 electronic data processing machine the latest and most powerful
digital computer designed for scientific applications, now available to industry.
The giant computer is equivalent in calculating and problem solving power to
3000 tireless, perfectly organized and trained engineers. A staff of thirty mathematicians,
technicians and operators is involved at the present time in feeding problems
to the 704, analyzing results, and keeping the machine in operation. Avro's 704
is the only one installed outside the United States.
The Arrow structure
is designed to provide a high wing, delta planform,
all metal aircraft. Although the air loads had been
determined by the Aerodynamics Department, it was impossible
to know at that time what effect manoeuvrability would
have on the structure. For this reason a large number
of stressing cases had to be investigated. Supersonic
aircraft are virtually flying pressure vessels, and
the problem was further complicated by the need to
keep weight to a minimum. Supersonic aircraft also
involve problems which previously could be ignored.
Two such problems which required extensive investigation
by the Stress Department were structure weakening caused
by heat and sound.
In simple terms the heat problem is caused by friction
between the air and the aircraft skin. Temperatures attained while flying at
supersonic speeds are high enough to weaken structure-the higher the speed, the
more the heat, bigger the problem.
There are two main types of detrimental sound-jet engine
and aero dynamic. These can cause skin panels to fracture and rivets to loosen,
again weakening structure. Sonic structural tests are being car- ried out constantly,
and will con tinue, until they have run Ion enough to indicate satisfactory pane
Proper ground support equipment plays an important role
in the operational effectiveness of any modern military aircraft. Since most
existing equipment could not be used for Arrow servicing requirements it was
essential to ensure adequate main- tenance facilities were available.
Ground Handling A joint Avro-RCAF Maintenance Engineering Group
was formed, and to date has designed some 200 pieces of equipment. Problems to
be overcome in this field were as great in their own way as those in the aircraft
itself. This is self-evident when one realizes for example that the engine starter
truck is a jeep- mounted gas turbine, and the power- and-air-conditioning truck
m u s t maintain
a constant air flow at 55°F to the
weapons, electronic and other sensitive equipment,
under all ground temperature conditions. Arrow development
presented some problems that were not even dreamed
of when the CF-100 was designed. At supersonic speeds,
for instance, air loads on the control surfaces are
extremely high, and the pilot must be provided with
considerable amplification of his physical strength.
In fact, control mechanisms are installed on the Arrow
wliieh are sufficiently powerful to lift the equivalent
of six elephants standing on the elevators.
Electronics Modern military aircraft require elaborate
electrical and electronic systems. In the Arrow there are some eleven miles of
wiring and enough vacuum tubes to equip about two hundred television sets except
for picture tubes.
Tremendous power is needed to fly an aircraft at supersonic
speeds, and the Arrow uses about twice as much power as that required to drive
the Queen Mary. To develop this power, the engines consume fuel at the rate of
more than a quarter of a ton per minute. Much of this power is dissipated in
air friction at these very high speeds, and air friction raises the aircraft
temperature to such a degree that the air conditioning required to protect the
crew and the vital equipment is sufficient to produce 23 tons of ice a day.
The complex structural requirements, and the desire
to keep construction as simple as possible made extensive research necessary
in this field. A vast amount of development has been done in the field of metal-
to-metal bonding which ehninates much of the time-consuming and difficult processes
of conventional riveting and fastening. In order that metal bonding can be used
successfully, it must be sufficiently strong, reasonably easy to use, and must
have sufficient heat resistance to be unaffected at temperateres experienced
by an aircraft flying at supersonic speeds.
Static testing of wing structure
being conducted by the Structural Test department.
Dial test indicators are being used, along with
strain gauges, to measure deflection.
Production Prototype While bonding of aluminum alloys imposed no great
problem, considerable experimental work was required with magnesium alloys. A
process has been developed by Avro metallurgists which has proven very satisfactory
under tests, and is used in many parts of the aircraft.
Until recently, high-performance aircraft were not committed
to production until after flight testing of one or more prototypes. Normally
quite a number of changes are necessary before the aircraft can go into production.
The Arrow program is unusual in Canada in that even the first flying model has
been built on production tooling. This time-saving approach made it essential
to prove the basic soundness of the structural and system concepts by exhaustive
testing prior to the actual build of the aircraft. This procedure subjects nearly
all components to test
equivalent to the most severe and varied
All the aircraft systems, too, must undergo the most
rigorous tests to ensure the high safety standard and efficient component operation
demanded of the Arrow.
The fuel system for instance, has been set up in every
detail on an elaborate test rig which simulates its operation and allows it to
be tested in any position that the aircraft may assume. Fuel system test program
includes investigations of the pressure system, refueling and de-fueling, simulated
flight sequences and emergency operation,
Stress Analysis The difficult task of analyzing the structure
of the Arrow imposed many unique problems on the stress engineers. The complexity
of the Arrow's structure demanded the use of the most advanced analysis methods
and techniques available.
A novel technique used in the stress analysis program
involved the use of plastic models. These models had to be constructed with great
care so that the structure would have the required degree of similarity to the
actual aircraft. They were then placed in test rigs which were capable of producing
loads on the models comparable to the predicted flight loads. After intensive
testing, the deflections and stresses which were produced showed that the methods
being used for analytical studies were valid.
Ancilary Equipment The hundreds of items of mechanical, hydraulic,
electrical and electronic equipment in the Arrow are all required to operate
in a severe high temperature, high-altitude environment with the utmost reliability.
Equipment which would perform under these conditions simply did not exist when
the Arrow design got under way. It was therefore necessary for Avro to specify
the special performance necessary for each one of these devices to do its job,
and to assess the proposals of equipment manufacturers throughout the continent
to determine their capability to develop the items. Avro then maintained close
engineering contact with all these sources while the units which had to meet
the Arrow's stringent requirements were being designed, built, tested and delivered.
In modern military
terms, an aircraft like the Arrow becomes the central
component of a "Weapon System". Besides the
basic aircraft, this Weapon System must include a complete,
compatible air and ground environment, starting with
the support and maintenance equipment at RCAF bases,
through the ground radar and communication facilities,
up to and including the airborne electronic system
and weapons. All this is essential for a supersonic
interceptor to perform its specified task.
As the Arrow program progressed, it soon became evident
that no existing combination of electronic equipment met the RCAF's operational
requirements and the Arrow's environmental needs. After evaluating several proposals,
the RCAF selected RCA as the electronic system contractor, with the task of developing
this most essential component of the Arrow weapon system.
RCA and RCA's associate contractor, Minneapolis-Honeywell,
along with their Canadian affiliates, plunged into the task of creating the advanced
specialized electronic system for automatic flight, weapon fire control, communication
and navigation which has been designated the "Astra I" system.
What Next? To date, approximately 17,000 different
dawings have been released for the Arrow 1 and Engineering has formed a liaison
team, which is on call twenty-four bours a day, to ensure that any drawing geery
or problem which may arise is immediately dealt with.
It is now four years since the design started. This
is considered better than average for the time required to design and build present
day high performance aircraft.
The Arrow is a fighter aircraft, yet its armament bay
is as large as the bomb bay of some World War II bombers and the power of its
two Iroquois engines is almost sufficient to lift the aircraft vertically off
With the Arrow 1 engineering complete, the Engineering
Division is looking toward future development of the aircraft; It. is a flexable,
versatile, aircraft and with development it can have a greatly extended future.
The present Arrow is on the threshold of the heat barrier, popularly called the
Thermal Thicket, and studies are now under way as to how to adapt the aircraft
for even higher speeds
Pilots' view from the
cockpit of the Arrow shows excellent visibility despite
slight nose-up attitude while taxiing. Photo was
taken from mobile cockpit mock-up.
Test Pilots Aid Program
(Continued from Page 9, Col. 4)
by General Joseph Caldara, of the
Office of the Director of Flight Safety, U.S.A.F.,
following an official visit to the plant, ater which
he stated that the Arrow's cockpit layout is the
best he had seen.
Members of Avro's Experimental Test Pilot staff have,
as part of their preparations for preliminary flight tests of the Arrow, spent
some time at the Convair test facility at Palmdale, California. There they have
flown experimental and production version of the F-12 single-engine, delta-wing
interceptor now being
produced for the U.S. Air Force. Now
that the Arrow is completed and is unveiled for the
first time, it will be moved from the production
bays to the flight test hangar in preparation for
its initial flight. The test pilots experience a
strong feeling of pride in the achievement of the
Engineering and Manufacturing divisions, and of anticipation
for the opportunity to launch the Arrow on its flight
program. They are eager to commence that portion
of the development which is implied by the professional
title: Experimental Test Pilot.
Low Manhour Record
Set By First Arrow
(Continued from Page 4,
was moved in order to accommodate the big new skin
mill and heavy machining facilities.
Calculated additional power requirements resulted in
the construction of two new sub-stations with a total additional output of 3,000
To Plant Engineering fell the task of providing these
additional floor space requirements, as well as the installation and maintenance
of the new equipment required.
Still another responsibility of the Plant Engineering
department was the design and installation of portable and static fixtures in
the assembly areas, providing work areas which are, in some cases, three storeys
Sound Control As the program progressed, intensive investigations
were made into the most practical means of sound control the necessary ground
testing of the Arrow's powerplant. This research resulted in the present flight
line installation of the largest sound control units of their type in the world.
Each twin-cell unit weighs some fifty tons.
The increase in requirements for water, light, heat
and power have increased Avro's plant utilities services to the point where they
can now meet a demand equivalent to a community the size of Brampton.
Closely following this large increase of plant and equipment
facilities came a streamlined program of house keeping and maintenance which
has contributed significantly to the efficiency of this complex production program.
Outside Suppliers With the release of design information from
the Engineering Division the Procurement Department began negotiations which
resulted in over 650 outside suppliers established for the present Arrow program.
A very important aspect of Avro's procurement policy was the development of Canadian
sources of supply where possible. As a result of this policy many of the subcontractors
had to expand their facilities, purchase new equipment and increase employment
in order to economically meet the complex supply wherever possible. As a repart
requirements of the airplane. In all cases company procurement personnel provided
technical assistance through liaison with the Avro design and production departments.
Coast To Coast
In the supply of bought out equipment, negotiations
were carried on with firms in almost every part of the continent. Some parts
and equipment that had been considered standard throughout the industry had to
be redesigned, and in some instances, made of new materials to meet the close-tolerance
demands of this supersonic aircraft.
the program progressed, over 5,000 people were found
to be employed outside Avro in the manufacture of
Arrow parts and tools. Extensive liaison on
the part of Procurement personnel was needed in order
that these parts and tools met the efficient schedule
and cost requirements of Avro production.
Increased floor areas were provided in the Stores section
to meet the heavy demands of the new pro- gram. In the handling and storage of
materials and equipment, stringent methods were exercised to avoid even the slightest
damage that could affect their use on production.
The Production Engineering department provided the key
link between the Engineering Division and all Production sections. In addition
to planning the work sequence of each part, and the design and manufacture of
tools, this department was responsible for ensuring that these production tools
and methods resulted in parts being finished to a high degree of accuracy.
The fact that the Arrow is an extremely advanced type
of airplane means that extreme accuracy in surface smoothness is mandatory. In
addition, to provide the most efficient use of the airplane in service, a high
degree of interchangeability of parts and components was required right from
the first airplane which came off the line today.
Efficient Handling These two factors made necessary the
master model program for outside envelope control, and the interchangeability
tooling program to establish efficient service handling from the beginning.
Extensive use of glass cloth was introduced early in
the manufacturing program to more accurately transfer Engineering information
to tooling and manufacturing stages.
Milling of wing skins and large machined parts from
solid billets of metal provided a tremendous integral increase in the Arrow's
structural strength. Besides reducing the design and manufacturing times required,
this nethod eliminated tolerance difficulties inherent in the matching of numerous
Departures from existing methods of manufacture
became almost common. In the field of metal bonding, Production Engineering developed
a stronger and lighter method of joining metal to metal. New materials such as
titanium provided key parts with greater heat resistence properties. Magnesium
was employed for weight saving purposes.
With the master schedule as a working basis, the Production
Control department's task was to schedule release of orders to the many fabricating
areas, to expedite production of the parts according to priority sequence and
to ensure the supply of finished parts to the assembly areas through the appropriate
finished part stores.
procedure required exacting control, particularly
since the release of these Arrow orders had to
be scheduled along with those of the CF100's production,
Transit is used to line
up correct aerofoil forms of master models to horizontal
and vertical datum lines. Work on these specially-fabricated
tools began in July, 1954.
Arrow electrical system
testrig simulates exactly the complete electrical
system in the aircraft. Any production electrical
component proving an electrical fitting for the first
Arrow can be checked for serviceability in this rig.
Ed Moore of systems test, is seen.
modification programs. Close
attention was also the byword in shop loading procedures
so that work orders were released consistent with current
machine and manpower capacity. The Progress section
played an important part with their follow-up procedures
in expediting parts out of the shop and into their
finished part stores. Where interruptions occurred
in the production flow, the Progress section had to
instigate schedule recovery action. Throughout
all stages, from the time the order was placed in the
shop until its reception in the finished part store,
a day to day reporting system was maintained so that
the location and stage of completion of each part was
readily available. From these records management was
given a permanently
accurate picture of production in relation
to scheduled completions.
Bottlenecks As the final assembly stage was reached, the
inevitable `bottlenecks' spring up, many requiring re-design and re-work processes.
Much of the credit is due the Production Control department for getting these
snags overcome rapidly through their efforts in providing smooth interdepartmental
liaison when fast remedial action was required. From
the raw material to the finished part, and assembly of these parts and equipment
into the aircraft unveiled today was the responsibility of the Production Shops
Using over 1.5 million square feet of floor space, comprising the sheet
metal, machine and assembly areas, the thousands of production shop personnel
have made and assembled some 38,000 parts into the first Avro Arrow. It
was a gigantic task while still maintaining scheduled production on all phases
of the CF-100 program
(Continued from Page 8, Col. 4)
and to carry out some of these it was necessary
to purchase a `Vidigage' thickness measuring machine
which has the appearance of a 21- in. TV and will
give accurate checks of thickness at any point
regardless of the size of skin. In
areas where other parts have to be bonded to the
skins, inspection have to carry out `waviness'
checks on the skin surface and tolerances here
are as close as plus and minus .002 in.
New Materials In Details Inspection, Horace Riley found a
lot of new problems when Arrow production commenced. It must be remembered that
this first Arrow is a production aircraft and that there is no prototype other
New materials used in detail man- ufacture such as titanium
and inconel, and the extended use of magnesium alloys and high tensile aluminum
alloys posed unique inspection problems. New conditions and tolerances needed
to be reckoned with. Some material was found to `grow' after heat treatment,
others would stretch during forming to a much greater degree than less strong
Increased use, in the Arrow, of details produced by
stretch forming has brought about different concepts of inspection and different
locations for carrying it out. Some forty parts were produced by stretching for
the CF-100. In the case of the Arrow the number is near 2,000 and each had to
be inspected to find out where, and what percentage of stretch took place.
Some idea of how the Arrow program progressed can be
symbolized by the Centre Fuselage section of the aircraft. It is the largest
of the Fuselage components and the main assembly jig for this was handed over
to production in October of 1956. The first component was cleared by Inspection
in February of this year and there were some thirty-six inspection stages to
be carried out while the component was in the jig.
Other than main assembly jigs, work is produced in large
numbers of other jigs. In each case, a rigid first-off inspection had to be performed
to prove the tool. The Engine Bay alone used thirty-four jigs other than that
for the main assembly.
Some of the new inspectional features encountered on
final assembly include the optical alignment set-up used in the final jig and
the introducing of a refrigerant gas into the wing tank areas whereby leaks are
found with a `snifter' detector.
It is an unusual thing for assembly inspectors to carry
plug gauges but that had to be done with the first Arrow. The structural strength
necesary is such that bolt holes at joints must be right to the close limits
called for by Engineering.
Bought-out Items Geoff Hughes is in charge of electronic installations
inspection and has been responsible for the testing and inspection of all equipment
for the first Arrow, this includes items of hydraulic and pneumatic equipment
as well as electronic. Some 1,300 items of bought-out equipment go into each
The four-man team appointed by Fred T. Smye, President
and General Manager, to spearhead the drive to get this first Arrow out on schedule,
includes Cyril Meilton from Inspection. Cyril who is Inspection Superintendent
of the Details and Assembly Shops has, like other team members, been iving with
the job since the aircraft began to take shape in the final assembly jig. It
has been his responsibility to make the major decisions on inspection matters
Impact Of Arrow The greatest impact of the Arrow program on
the production shops was the extensive increase in both quantity and complexity
of parts, along with familiarization in the use of new materials and equipment.
Difficult machining and forming operations became the rule rather than the exception,
and the fact that the first Avro Arrow is a production aircraft represents an
outstanding departure from previous programs involving a series of prototype
general view of the Arrow Final Assembly shows
major components being assembled for subsequent
release to the final assembly marry-up in the background.
Selling New Aircraft
Is Delicate Merchandizing
(Continued from Page 9 Col. 2)
ord various phases of the program. The movies are prepared by the
Photographic Department in co operation with the Writing Section.
The Parts Department of Sales and Service maintains
the supply of adequate spares to the customer. From an early design stage, this
department, in close co-operation with the RCAF has been analyzing Arrow provisioning
requirements. Each part of the aircraft is reviewed and the service life of parts
under various o~crating conditions assessed. When all factors have been studied,
the necessary quantity of spare parts is ordered by the RCAF, either from Avro
or from the component manufacturer.
All Company spares are prepared
by the Parts Department. They are scientifically
packed to ensure arrival undamaged at their destination,
and to remain serviceable during their shelf life
under any climatic conditions.
Cover design on this issue was drawn by Ed
Dyke of the Illustrating Section, Sales and
Service. Whereas the perspective of the cover
picture may appear exaggerated to the layman,
it is, in fact, an optically accurate view
from immediately under the pointed nose of
Pays Tribute To Arrow Contributors
Who Made Today's
from Page 2, Col. 1)
"In this connection I would like to pay tribute
to my colleagues, Mr. J. C. Floyd, Vice-President
of Engineering and Mr, H. R. Smith, Vice-President
of Manufacturing, who have headed up their teams
"I would also like to pay tribute to the Canadian government agencies with
whom we have worked so closely, and who have made such great contributions to
this project. In particular, of course, I refer to the Royal Canadian Air Force,
and to its staff of able technicians and engineers.
"I would also like to make mention of the National Research Council, who
have assisted in many technical areas, and particularly in the use of their wind
tunnel and other test facilities.
DDP Helpful Partner "The Department of Defence Production
has also been a most helpful partner in this undertaking,
and is ever ready to assist with our problems which
arise in the sphere of their responsibility.
"The Defence Research Board has likewise contributed its assistance in advice
on technical problems, and greatly assisted the very important free flight model
test programme which was carried out at one of their facilities.
"We also wish to say `thank you' to the United States Air Force and to the
National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics for the co-operation and assistance
which they have always been so free in offering.
Subcontractors "Whereas the Arrow is an Avro product,
and whereas we are responsible for the overall
design and manufacture of the aircraft, we could
be considered, let us say, as the captain of a
team of hundreds of suppliers and sub-contractors
who, together with us, did this job.
"There are many companies who have
made outstanding technical contributions in the design,
development and manufacture of all types of equipment
and material for the aircraft. To them I wish to expressour
deep appreciation and gratitude. The first aeroplane
which you will see today, and the next few development
aircraft will be powered with the Pratt & Whitney
J.75 engine. However, the ultimate engine to power
the balance of the development aircraft, and all the
production aircraft, is the recently unveiled Iroquois,
designed by our associate company, Orenda Engines Limited.
"As we have been creating the Arrow, they have
been creating the Iroquois. This engine too represents
a milestone in Canadian industrial accomplishment,
and it is the thrust of this engine on which the very
advanced performance of the Arrow will depend.
"At the close of this ceremony, the aircraft
will be taken to the flight test hanger for flight
preparation, which will involve exhaustive testing
and the installation of extensive, specialized instrumentation.
The flight date of the aircraft will depend on the
problems which will have to be dealt with during this
phase of the programme and, consequently, it is difficult
to foretell. We are hopeful, however, that the aircraft
will make its first flight before the end of the year.
Flight Test Program
"Behind this first aircraft there are other development
aircraft in various stages of completion, and all of
which will be subjected to an extensive and time consuming
flight test and development programme. We
know that, like all other aircraft of this type, where
one is constantly probing the unknown, we will encounter
many problems and setbacks and it will not be until
this exhaustive testing is successfully concluded and
until the development phase of the programme has been
accomplished, that it will be able to see service in
the squadrons of the Royal Canadian Air Force.
"The CF100, which is currently in
production for the Royal Canadian Air Force and the
Belgian Air Force, was created,designed, developed
and produced here at Malton. We like to feel that that
aircraft has played an important role in the defence
of our country and has contributed to NATO. It is our
fervent hope that, in due course, the Arrow will make
the same contribution in the supersonic era in service
with the Royal Canadian Air Force and with the air
forces of other allied countries.
"In closing, I would like to again thank
the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Government
of Canada for affording us the opportunity of designing
both of these aircraft, and for entrusting to us
this responsibility, of which we are so deeply
Precision Keynotes All Arrow Tooling
(Continued from Page 4, Col. 4)
for the processing of the many lar e pieces of
material required for Arrow part manufacturing.
Immediately below the hot air circulating furnace,
which is mounted on legs, is a 20-foot-long quench
bath. This set-up means a minimum of time is spent
in the transfer of material from the furnace to
To meet strength specifications where parts were
joined together with the metal bondin technique,
an autoclave pressure camber was installed. Where
metal bonding of materials is used on the Arrow
it gives a high degree of adhesive strength as
well as a weight saving factor due to the elimination
of rivets and other dowel-type fasteners.
Due to the weight of many of the Arrow components,
and the accuracy required in their assembly, a
final assembly fixture was provided so that all
of the large components could be brought together
accurately at one stage.
Methods to establish working flexibility of assembly
jigs were developed along with standardization
of jig fixtures where possible which added to a
more efficient tooling program.